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( `LSheet1uSheet2vSheet3,`i AS Unit F611: Simple Systems1.1 Simple Digital SystemsZSwitches in series with resistors can be used to convert information into digital signals.{a) recall how to use switches and pullup or pulldown resistors in series with a power supply to generate digital signals;qb) recall that, unless otherwise stated, logic 1 (high) is a signal at +5 V and logic 0 (low) is a signal at 0 V;Me) recall that components have maximum ratings for current, voltage or power;f) recall how to use multimeters as voltmeters, ammeters and ohmmeters to measure voltage, current and resistance in a circuit;0Digital signals can be processed by logic gates.h) recall the transfer characteristic of a NOT gate (an input above +3 V gives 0 V at the output, an input below +2 V gives +5 V at the output), and represent it as an input output graph;[i) recall the truth tables of the following twoinput logic gates: AND, EOR, NAND, NOR, OR;zj) understand the use of an LED to indicate the state of a logic gate's output (including the need for a series resistor);`A logic gate s output signal can be used to switch a variety of devices on and off via a driver.(b) understand that a MOSFET is a voltagecontrolled resistor (the voltage at the gate determines the resistance between the drain and the source);(c) recall the transfer characteristic of a MOSFET (drainsource resistance is infinite until gatesource voltage reaches a threshold value, then drops to a constant low value for higher gatesource voltages) and represent it as a resistancevoltage graph.(d) recall that MOSFETS with appropriate threshold voltages can act as drivers, sinking current from motors, heaters, buzzers and lamps.3Standard symbols are used to draw circuit diagrams.JThe flow of information through a system can be shown with block diagrams.[(f) understand that circuit diagrams omit power supply connections for integrated circuits;f(g) represent a simple digital system as a block diagram, showing input, processing and output stages;S(h) understand that a block diagram shows the flow of information through a system;W(i) understand that block diagrams make it easier to analyse the operation of a system;c(j) analyse and synthesise circuit and block diagrams for digital systems with only one logic gate.1.2 Digital from Analogue\The resistance of some components depends on their environment. They can be used as sensors. (a) recall the transfer characteristic of an LDR (resistance falls as light intensity increases) and represent this as a resistance intensity graph;(b) recall the transfer characteristic of a thermistor (resistance falls as temperature increases) and represent this as a resistance temperature graph;e(c) recall and use the equation for the resistance of resistors in series (R = R1 + R2) and parallel;(d) calculate the output voltage of an unloaded voltage divider made from a pair of resistors in series with a power supply;T(e) understand the use of a potentiometer to generate a signal of variable voltage; s(f) understand the difference between analogue and digital signals (analogue have any value,digital have just two)._Opamps can convert the analogue signal from a sensor into a digital signal for a logic system.(h) understand that an ideal opamp can bemodelled as having no current at its inputs, but able to source or sink currents of up to 10 mA;(i) understand the use of a diode in series with resistors to convert the output of an opamp into high and low signals for a logic system; (j) recall the transfer characteristic for a diode and represent it as a current voltage graph (no current in reverse bias; current rises rapidly in forward bias when voltage reaches 0.7 V);(k) understand the use of a zener diode in series with a resistor to generate a fixed voltage at one of the inputs of an opamp;(l) recall the transfer characteristic for a zener diode and represent it as a currentvoltage graph (no current in reverse bias until the breakdown voltage; current rises rapidly in forward bias when voltage reaches 0.7 V);m(m) analyse and synthesise sensor systems with digital outputs for position, light intensity and temperature.,Capacitors can delay the change of a signal. (n) recall the exponential change in voltage across a capacitor as it is charged or discharged from a constant voltage through a resistor, and represent it as a voltage time graph;<(o) recall and use the equation for time constant ( RC = );w(p) recall and use the idea that the voltage across the resistor of an RC series circuit is halved in a time of 0.7 ;(q) understand the use of a capacitor to delay the change of signal caused by the closing or opening of a switch in series with a resistor.
1.3 Pulses;A monostable uses an RC network to generate a single pulse. (a) understand the use of an RC network to generate spikes from rising or falling edges, representing them as voltage time graphs at input and output (exponential drop lasts about two time constants);P(b) understand the use of diodes as clamps to suppress spikes from RC networks; (d) recall that inputs to logic gates draw no current and have clamping diodes to the supply rails; (e) sketch voltage time graphs at inputs and outputs of the logic gates in a monostable.`A relaxation oscillator uses a Schmitt trigger NOT gate to produce a continuous train of pulses. (f) recall the transfer characteristic of a Schmitt trigger NOT gate and represent it as an input output graph (no recall of trip point values required);(g) understand the use of an RC network and Schmitt trigger NOT gate to make an oscillator and sketch voltage time graphs at input and output (period T = 0.5RC);(h) understand how to use an oscilloscope to observe voltages that vary with time (including use of timebase and vertical amplifier settings to measure amplitude and period);d(j) understand the use of a driver to provide the interface between an oscillator and a loudspeaker.1.4 Logic SystemsGCombinations of logic gates can process signals in many different ways.K(b) recall and use Boolean algebra to represent the output of logic gates; T(c) recall and use Boolean algebra to represent the output columns of a truth table;S(d) understand the construction of a truth table from a Boolean algebra expression;(e) understand the use of Boolean algebra to represent the behaviour of a logic system (including the use of the rules given in Appendix B to simplify expression< s);5(f) synthesise AND, OR and NOT gates from NAND gates;X(g) understand the use of NAND gates to synthesise logic systems with up to four inputs;v(h) understand the advantages of only using NAND gates (more economic use of integrated circuits, economies of scale);S(i) analyse the behaviour of logic systems with up to four inputs and four outputs.#3.2 AS Unit F612: Signal Processors 2.1 Storing Signals7Arrays of logic gates can be used to store information. (a) recall the behaviour of a bistable (separate inputs to set and reset a single output) and represent its behaviour with timing diagrams;O(b) understand the use of NOR gates to make a bistable with active high inputs;O(c) understand the use of NAND gates to make a bistable with active low inputs;(d) recall the behaviour of a latch (data and enable inputs to set and reset a single output) and represent its behaviour with timing diagrams;J(e) analyse the operation of a latch made from logic gates and a bistable;(f) recall the behaviour of a risingedge triggered D flipflop (data, clock, set and reset inputs, complementary outputs) and represent its behaviour with timing diagrams;T(g) analyse the operation of a D flipflop made from a master slave pair of latches;J(h) understand the use of an array of D flipflops to store a binary word.2.2 Negative Feedback:Negative feedback allows opamps to process audio signals. (a) recall the use of an electret microphone to transfer sounds into electrical signals, to include the use of a pullup resistor and a coupling capacitor;w(b) understand that an ideal amplifier increases the amplitude of an ac signal without altering its frequency or shape;?(c) recall and use the equation for voltage gain G = Vout / Vinm(d) recall that an opamp is a differential amplifier (Vout = A(V+ V)) with a very large openloop gain A;(e) understand the use of negative feedback to make an opamp into a voltage follower, including the need for a pulldown resistor at the noninverting input;\(f) understand that a voltage follower has a voltage gain of one but can provide power gain.[Resistors can be used to make opamps into noninverting, inverting and summing amplifiers.(i) recall the transfer characteristics of inverting and noninverting amplifiers based on opamps, and represent them as input output graphs, including saturation;S(k) recall that resistors in opamp amplifiers need to be in the range 1 K to 10 M.2.3 Counting Pulses(Arrays of D flipflops can count pulses.U(a) understand the connection of D to Q to make a D flipflop into a onebit counter;Y(b) understand the use of D flipflops and a NOT gate to make a binary ripple upcounter;y(c) understand the use of logic gates to make binary counters that reset to m after n counts, where m and n are integers.a(d) recall and use timing diagrams to represent the transfer characteristics of a binary counter;k(e) recall the use of decoders and sevensegment LEDs to display the output of a binary counter in decimal.VBinary counters are at the heart of systems that produce sequences of digital signals.(f) understand the use of binary counters to make systems that can be used as clocks, including the use of crystal oscillators for precision timing;(g) understand the use of oscillators, logic systems and binary counters to generate continuous sequences of digital signals, to include frequency division;(h) understand the use of a flipflop, oscillators, logic systems and binary counters to generate a single train of pulses when triggered by a pulse.2.4 Amplifying AudioSAn audio amplifier allows signals from a microphone to be heard from a loudspeaker.(a) explain the operation of a complete audio amplifier system in terms of blocks representing voltage amplifier, volume and tone controls and power amplifier;(b) recall and use the concepts of output and input impedance to solve problems of power and signal transfer between subsystems;>(c) understand the use of a potentiometer as a volume control."Capacitors can be used as filters.{(d) explain the use of a capacitor as a frequencydependant impedance, with impedance decreasing with increasing frequency;(f) recall the transfer characteristics of simple passive filters and represent them with log log gain frequency graphs, using straight line approximations;(g) understand treble cut, bass cut and bandpass filters based on opamps, including the use of log log gain frequency graphs to represent their transfer characteristics.2.5 MicrocontrollersHThe behaviour of a microcontroller is fixed by the program fed into it.(a) describe a microcontroller as a digital system those transfer characteristics are decided by the program stored in its memory;Q(b) understand the difference between hardware and the software that controls it;l(c) understand the advantages of programmable systems (economies of scale, reusable, ease of system design);W(d) understand the limitations of programmable systems (digital only, relatively slow);(e) understand the need for a host computer to translate a program into machine code and download it into a microcontroller.NA small set of microcontroller instructions allows a wide range of behaviours.(f) understand the meaning of the terms input port, output port, memory address and register in the context of a microcontroller system;f(g) understand that an analoguetodigital converter outputs a byte that represents the input voltage;z(h) recall and use flowcharts to analyse and design simple programs for microcontrollers, using the symbols of Appendix C;\(i) understand the use of hexadecimal notation to summarise fourbit binary words and bytes.dg) understand the use of the prefixes G, M, k, m, u , n and p when calculating values of quantities.(j) understand the use of feedback and input resistors to allow an opamp to combine two or more different ac signals: Vout / Rf = ( V1 / R1 ) + ( V2 / R2 ) & r(e) recall and use the equation for break frequency in bass cut and treble cut filters; fo = 1 / 2 Pi R C (g) understand the use of feedback and pulldown resistors to make an opamp into an noninverting amplifier with a known voltage gain: G = 1 + (Rf / Rd)(h) understand the use of feedback and input resistors to make an opamp into an inverting amplifier with a known voltage gain to include the concept of virtual earth for the inverting input: G =  (Rf / Rin)<(i) recall and use the equation for frequency ( f = 1 / T );Ac) recall and use the defining equation for resistance ( V = IR);9?
td) recall and use the equation for power( P = IV) to calculate the rate of heating, or output power, of a component;*0
(c) understand the use of a pair of NAND gates and an RC network to make a monostable the output of which goes low for 0.7RC s when triggered by a falling edge;k) recall the transfer characteristic of an LED and represent it as a current voltage graph (no current in reverse bias; current rises rapidly in forward bias when vo<
ltage reaches 2 V).E(e) recall and use standard circuit symbols todraw circuit diagrams; (a) recall that logic gates can only source or sink currents of a few milliamps, so cannot supply much power to output devices;(g) recall the transfer characteristic of an open loop opamp operating from supply rails at +15 V and 15 V (output saturates at +13 V if noninverting input higher than inverting input, otherwise output saturates at 13 V);b(a) understand use of truth tables to analyse the behaviour of logic systems with up to 3 inputs;5
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